Teow Ker Loo 0301647
Jeanette Ting
Mekartti Kalbrini

Thursday, 23 May 2013



al-Firdaws madrasa
founder : Dhayfa Khatun, wife of Ayyubid ruler of Aleppo
Location : southwest of Bab al-Maqam

Enclosed coutyards are hidden in the intersection of the axis of the building. The space is without any human imaginary and idols
In the prayer hall, above the mihrab, insciptions are lit up by the illuminating effects of sunlight. This is the architecture of light as an expression.

There is a balance in the proportions of the plan of al-Firdaws. 

AYYUBID DYNASTY ( 1171-1341)

-Ayyub ( Saladin's father) lent his name to their dynasty
- Kurdish origin, founded by Saladin and centered in Egypt
- A period of vigorously strengthening Sunni Muslim dominance in the region by constructing numerous madrasas in the major cites.
-The Ayyubids ushered in an era of economic prosperity in the lands they ruled
- Resurgence in intellectual activity in the Islamic world.

Historical Events
1) Saladin sent to Egypt, aided Shirkuh in a power struggle against Shawar
2) Shirkuh took over but died 2 months later
3) Saladin took over from Shirkuh as vizier of Egypt and eventually the sultan.
4) death of Nur-ud Din (Saladin's mentor) took over control of northern Syria
5) Battle of Hattin - for Jerusaleum against Crusaders
6) Won over Jerusaleum, crusaders keep fighting for the Holy Land
7) Saladin dies in 1193
Saladin during one of his Battles

The Ayyubid Dynasty 
Architectural Style 
The Ayyubid architecture style was mainly  military architecture, due to the invasion from the Christians crusaders. 
The characteristics that can be seen are : 
1) FORTIFICATIONS - learnt from the crusaders to build curtain walls which follow the natural topography of the site.
The citadel 
2) MACHICOLATIONS & ROUND TOWERS - machincolations are floor openings between the supporting corbels of a battlement, through which stones, or other objects, could be dropped on attackers at the base of a defensive wall. 
Machincolations and Round towers

4) RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS - madrassas' were built in major cities. 
Firdaws Madrasa 

Thursday, 16 May 2013

Presentation May 17

1. Mamluks is Arabic designation for “owned slaves”. 
2. Domination:
-  Throne was passed through by murder or usurpation, not inheritance
- Every reign of Sultan rarely lasted more than 6 years.
3. Conclusion:  Architecture flourished and new forms evolved.

Bahri Mamluks (1250- 1382 AD):  Chaotic Politic
1ST Mamluk Sultan: Baybars Al- Bunduqdari
- He succeed remove Crusaders and protected Egypt from the Mongols&
   Restored power to the Abbasid caliphs in Cairo.

Mosque: Mosque of Baybars

Plan and image of Mosque of Baybars
-          No longer intact except outer wall remain
-          Projecting portals & corner towers (similar to al- Hakim)
-          One Minaret
-          Arcade was supported by both colums and brick piers
-          Stilted and pointed arches
-          Keel- shaped arches: decorative niches on the façade of the entrance

Mosque Complex of Sultan Hassan
Plan of Madrasssa of Sultan Hassa                                     Madrasssa of Sultan Hassan

- Year of built: 1356- 1363
- Complex contain: Friday mosque, a madrasa & domed mausoleum
- Major monument in Islamic World
- Largest mosque in Cairo, allow to accommodate 400 students
- Location: former palace, made it necessary to build an enourmous and magnificient structure
- Building:
                -Tall, towering 113 feet above the street
                - Dome collapsed in 1661
                - Originally has 2 minarets, only one stands today. Another one collapsed in 1659.
                - Portal: remarkable due to it is largest in Cairo.

7 principle

Knowledge: Sahn leads to the madrasa, consisting 4 rites (Shafi’i, Maliki, Hanafi, Hanbali)

Remembrance: Inscriptions at dome- rhythmic precision and expression in remembrance to God

Respect: Mosque gateway or entryway greet before by magnificent size of central courtyard and prayer hall.

Burgi/ Circassian Mamluks (1382- 1517 AD): Political Turmoil
1. Circassian Mamluks were slaves bought by Bahri Mamluks Sultan Qala’ un
2. Similar to Bahri Mamluk dynasty, Circassian sultan gain power through murder and usurpation
3. Circassian rule began by Sultan Zaher Barqooq
In this empire, chritians and jews were persecuted and people were taxed heavily.
Conclusion: greatest epoch of Egyptian architecture
Mamluks produce most inspiring and breathtaking structure in the Islamic World.

Circassian Mamluk architecture
- Builders developed ribbed stone dome  and soon adapted.
- Builders develop ribbing: derived from tabbed stone helmet of the minaret of Amir Qusun, alter pattern that symbolize Circassian Mumluks Dynasty. Stone dome design quickly end after  Ottoman conquest of 1517.

Funerary Complex of Sultan Barquq
Plan and image of The Khanqah and Mausoleum of Sultan Faraj Ibn Barquq
- First Circassian ruler.
- Building contained: Similar to Mosque of Sultan Hassan, has madrasa teaching the  4 rites, Friday mosque and mausoleum.
Different with Mosque of Sultan Hassa: Also a khanqah for Sufis.
Accomodation: 125 students and 60 Sufis

Sultan Qaytbay (1468-1496)
- Devote to the construction of religious institution. This was the time of consolidation of idea and practices rather than a time of innovation.
- Able to develop and practice new architecture style: Focus on stone carving and the refinement of proportion.

The funerary & religious complex of Sultan Ashraf Qaitbay

Plan and image of The funerary & religious complex of Sultan Ashraf Qaitbay.

- Includes 4 iwans in the madrasa, cells for students, a tomb, a sabil (public drinking fountain), and a boy’s primary school.

Thursday, 2 May 2013

Weekly Progress

This week we separate our work so each of us focus on different period and do the introduction of the history and figure out the architecture style. There's 6 period for Egyptian architecture time which is 
Tulunid                        - Mekartti
Fatimid                       - Mekartti
Ayyubid                     - Jeanette
Bahari Mamluk             - Ker loo
Burji Mamluk                 - Ker Loo
Ottoman                  - Izzat

Tulunid Dynasty (868AD-905AD)

Under Ahmad ibn Tulun(governer of Egypt who soon took control of the country's finances and the conquered Syria), Egypt began to liberate itself under the rule of the Abbasid, and thus began a new era, The Tulunid Dynasty. However, this dynasty only last for a few generations, after which Egypt was once again ruled by the Abbasid.

Architectural style
The structure system consists of large brick piers and arches, also utilizing decorated bricks and carved, moled stacco. The Umayyad's rectangular plan was still maintained. The architecture in this era started to focus mainly on huge architectural scale.

Fatimid Dynasty (909A.D.-1171A.D.)

Founded by Abd Allah, the Fatimids consisted of Shia Muslims who discovered that they were descendants of the late Fatima, daughter of the Propher Muhammad and wife of Ali, the fourth caliph. Consequently this lead the founder to believe that it was his right to lead the Muslim world than the Abbasids. He assumed the title of caliph, and conquered Egypt in 969 A.D. and founded Cairo in 973 A.D.
In 1711 A.D., they succumbed to the armies of the Ayyubid Salah al-Din (Saladin)

Architectural style
They started to build facade decorations with recesses attached with windows are
Stucco, wood, and stone carvings together with door grills started to display floral designs and geometric motifs.
Hypostyle plan for mosque remained, an in addition arcades were built around courtyards.
Keel arches were also introduced.

Ayubbid Dynasty ( 1171 -1950) 

Began after Salah al-Din took over the Franks and Fatimids in 1171. This dynasty was a muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin. They spent the next decade on conquests throughout the region, and by 1183, they occupied Egypt, Syria, Northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen and North Africa. After the Battle of Hattin in 1187, most of the Kingdom of Jerusalem was under their control. The Ayyubids ushered in an era of economic prosperity in the lands they ruled and the facilities and patronage provided by the Ayyubids led to the resurgence in intellectual activity in the Islamic world. The Ayyubid’s also constructed multiple madrasas strengthening the Sunni Muslim dominance. 

Architectural Style 
Military architecture was the supreme expression of the Ayyubid dynasty. The most obvious change that occurred was the fortification of the Cairo and al-Fustat within one city wall. Waterworks were also introduced to the city, thus it expanded to streets and quarters, where they were provided with fountains and baths. The greatest achievement was the building of the Citadel of Damascus and Bosra in Syria. The extramural developments on inne

Overview of Mamluks (r. 648-692 AH/ 1250-1517 AD)

The Mamluks were the slave military elite who succeeded the Ayyubids as the rulers of Egypt and Syria. Mamluks appropriated many aspects of the architecture of their predecessors, the Fatimids and the Ayyubids. Elements like keel-shaped niches and the use of muqarnas to decorate the hoods of arched portals and niches, appear on the carefully composed monumental façades of Cairo, the Mamluk capital in Egypt.

Architecture Style:

Mamluk buildings are characterized by the high quality of their masonry work, by their monumental size, and by their carefully composed façades. From the street the buildings presented the viewer with views of tall domes, often with incredibly elaborate carved surfaces, slender minarets poised above expanses of plain masonry ornamented with inscription bands, tall pointed-arch windows, and enormous arched portals with muqarnas hoods. Interiors boasted rich ornamental programs composed of multicolored stone revetments, mosaics, and carved wood.
Mamluk architectural patronage was lavished on foundations that combined religious, funerary, educational, and other functions into multifunctional charitable complexes.
(for example, the Complex of Sultan Qala'un in Cairo of 1283-85 AD). 

In Cairo's cemeteries, and especially in the former Fatimid palace quarter known as the Bayn al-Qasrayn, ("between the two palaces")

Mamluk complexes crowd next to one another, their intricate plans incorporating mausolea, madrasas, courts, mosques, fountains, primary schools, and residences.
The domestic architecture of the Mamluks in Cairo continued the use of the arrangement of vaulted reception halls (qa'a) flanking a tall central space (durka). Lower levels of Mamluk houses accommodated commercial functions, and interior façades featured open arcades and mashrabiyyas overlooking private courtyards.

Ottoman Empire (1582-1848AD)

During these period, Egypt was branched out into twenty-four sector and each of it had its own Mamluk bey which previously known as an emir under the Ottomans. The beys were governed by the sultan in Istanbul. The slaves that lives in around the Mamluk beys had to pay taxes and also had baronial authority. Besides, the turks also had to be paid by the tributes as well. Sultan Selim, the Ottoman baron liked to beget uproar between the Mamluk beys that he could keep them divided and authorized. Thus, they always kept assaulting among themselves. The dominator who was on the top, was known, Sheikh al Balad, which means ''Controller of the country''.

Architectural Style

Having a heavy influence from the Byzantine tradition, which to be precise the influence of the Hagia Sophia during the Classical Ottoman architecture. The architectural style is definitely had a blend of numerous influences and adaptation for Ottoman needs. Sinan, the architect who designed most of the structures during this period, for instance, the design of the classical mosques had a similar touch as Hagia Sophia which both used a dome-based structure. Moreover, it also changed the proportions, structure interior had opened and freed it from the colonnades other structural elements that gapped out the inside of Hagia Sophia and other Byzantine churches. In addition, it also added more light to come into the facade, which led to emphasizing on the use of lighting and shadow with a large volume of windows.